"I face a dark future". Letters from the Leprosy Archives, Bergen

Marie-Theres Federhofer

Abstract


The article focuses on patient letters sent by leprosy patients or their family members applying for place at a leprosy hospital. They were written between 1871 and 1911, are today part of the Leprosy Archives in Bergen and have not been presented, contextualised and analysed before. The article aims at both unveiling the illness experiences of those who suffered from the disease and demonstrating the way they recount their experiences in these letters. The concept of ‘small stories’ (M. Bamberg / A. Georgakopoulou) serves as entry points to access the narrative techniques in these autobiographic and biographic documents.

Keywords


Patient letters,leprosy;leprosy politics in Norway, 19th century;narrative theory;small stories

Full Text:

PDF HTML

References


Aaslestad, Petter. 2009 [1997]. The Patient as Text: The Role of the Narrator in Psychiatric Notes, 1890–1990. Translated by Erik Skuggevik and Deborah Dawkin. Oxford: Radcliffe Publishing.

Andresen, Astri. 2004. “‘Patients for Life’. Pleiestiftelsen Leprosy Hospital 1850s–1920s.” In Hospitals, Patients and Medicine 1800–2000, edited by Astri Andresen, Tore Grønlie, and Svein Atle Skålevåg, 93–116. Bergen: Stein Rokkan Centre for Social Sciences.

Andresen, Astri. 2006. “Confinement and Care: Pleiestiftelsen No. 1.” In Leprosy, edited by Lorentz M. Irgens, Yngve Nedrebø, Sigurd Sandmo, and Arne Skivenes, in cooperation with the Leprosy Archives of Bergen, 71–79. Førde: Selja.

Bamberg, Michael. 2006. “Stories: Big or Small: Why Do We Care?” Narrative Inquiry 16, no. 1: 147–155.

Bamberg, Michael, and Alexandra Georgakopoulou. 2008. “Small Stories as a New Perspective in Narrative and Identity Analysis.” Text & Talk 28: 377–396.

Bloch, Marc. 1953. The Historian’s Craft. Translated by Peter Putnam. New York: Knopf.

Duden, Barbara. 1991. The Woman beneath the Skin: A Doctor’s Patients in Eighteenth-Century Germany. Translated by Thomas Dunlap. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ernst, Katharina. 1999. “Patientengeschichte: Die kulturhistorische Wende in der Medizinhistoriographie.” In Eine Wissenschaft emanzipiert sich: Die Medizinhistoriographie von der Aufklärung bis zur Postmoderne, edited by Rolf Bröer, 97–108. Pfaffenweiler: Centaurus.

Ernst, Katharina. 2003. Krankheit und Heilung. Die medikale Kultur württembergischer Pietisten im 18. Jahrhundert. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Foucault, Michel. 1965 [1961]. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard. New York: Pantheon.

Genette, Gérard. 1980. Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method. Translated by Jane E. Lewin. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Genette, Gérard. 1988. Narrative Discourse Revisited. Translated by Jane E. Lewin. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Genette, Gérard. 1990. “Fictional Narrative, Factual Narrative.” Poetics Today 11, no. 4: 755–774.

Georgakopoulou, Alexandra. 2006. “Thinking Big with Small Stories in Narrative and Identity Analysis.” Narrative Inquiry 16, no. 1: 129–137.

Georgakopoulou, Alexandra. 2007. Small Stories, Interaction and Identities. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Georgakopoulou, Alexandra. 2015. “Small Stories Research: Methods – Analysis – Outreach.” In The Handbook of Narrative Analysis, edited by Anna De Fina and Alexandra Georgakopoulou, 255–271. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Godøy, Bjørn Are. 2014. Ti tusen skygger. En historie om Norge og de spedalske. Oslo: Spartacus.

Goffman, Erving. 1961. Asylums: Essays on the Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates. New York: Anchor Books.

Gould, Tony. 2005. Don’t Fence Me In: Leprosy in Modern Times. London: Bloomsbury.

Gussow, Zachary. 1989. Leprosy, Racism, and Public Health: Social Policy in Chronic Disease Control. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Hofer, Hans-Georg, and Lutz Sauerteig. 2007. “Perspektiven einer Kulturgeschichte der Medizin.” Medizinhistorisches Journal 42, no. 2, Special issue: “Kulturgeschichte der Medizin”: 105–141.

Irgens, Lorentz M., Yngve Nedrebø, Sigurd Sandmo, and Arne Skivenes, eds. 2006. Leprosy. In cooperation with the Leprosy Archives of Bergen. Førde: Selja.

Klein, Christian, and Matías Martínez, eds. 2009. Wirklichkeitserzählungen: Felder, Formen und Funktionen nicht-literarischen Erzählens. Stuttgart: Metzler.

Koschorke, Albrecht. 2013. Wahrheit und Erfindung: Grundzüge einer Allgemeinen Erzähltheorie, 3rd edition. Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer.

Kreiswirth, Martin. 1995. “Tell Me a Story: The Narrativist Turn in the Human Sciences.” In Constructive Criticism: The Human Sciences in the Age of Theory, edited by Martin Kreiswirth and Thomas Carmichael, 61–87. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Kreiswirth, Martin. 2005. “Narrative Turn in the Humanities.” In Routledge Encyclopedia of Narrative Theory, edited by David Herman, Manfred Jahn and Marie-Laure Ryan, 377–382. London: Routledge.

Lachmund, Jens, and Gunnar Stollberg. 1995. Patientenwelten: Krankheit und Medizin vom späten 18. bis zum frühen 20. Jahrhundert im Spiegel von Autobiographien. Opladen: Leske + Budrich.

Loetz, Francisca. 1993. Vom Kranken zum Patienten: “Medikalisierung” und medizinische Vergesellschaftung am Beispiel Badens 1750–1850. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Onarheim, Berit. 1957. “Jeg var spedalsk.” Alle Kvinners Blad, 19 October.

Osten, Philipp, ed. 2010. Patientendokumente: Krankheit in Selbstzeugnissen. Stuttgart: Steiner.

Porter, Roy. 1985. “The Patient’s View: Doing Medical History from Below.” Theory and Society 14, no. 2: 175–198.

Ricoeur, Paul. 1988. Time and Narrative. Translated by Kathleen McLaughlin Blamey and David Pellauer. 3 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Rieder, Philip. 2003. “Patients and Words: A Lay Medical Culture?” In Framing and Imagining Disease in Cultural History, edited by George S. Rousseau, Miranda Gill, David Haycock, and Malte Herwig, 215–230. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ritzmann, Iris. 2001. “Leidenserfahrung in der historischen Betrachtung: Ein Seiltanz zwischen sozialem Konstrukt und humanbiologischer Konstanz.” Historische Zeitschrift. Supplements vol. 31, “‘Erfahrung’ als Kategorie der Frühneuzeitgeschichte”: 59–72.

Sandmo, Sigurd. 2007. “‘Healing by the Cross’: Discursive and Narrative Aspects of Leprosy in T. G. Rosaas’ Korsets Lægedom (1910).” In Transferring Public Health, Medical Knowledge and Science in the 19th and 20th Century, edited by Astri Andresen and Tore Grønlie, 167–179. Bergen: Stein Rokkan Centre for Social Sciences.

Schiøtz, Aina. 2003. Folkets helse, landets styrke 1850–2003. Oslo: Universitetsforlag.

Schlich, Thomas. 2007. “Zeitgeschichte der Medizin: Herausgehensweisen und Probleme.” Medizinhistorisches Journal 42, no. 3/4: 269–298.

Stolberg, Michael. 1996. “‘Mein äskulapisches Orakel!’ Patientenbriefe als Quelle einer Kulturgeschichte der Krankheitserfahrung im 18. Jahrhundert.” Österreichische Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaften 7: 385–404.

Stolberg, Michael. 2001. “Der gesunde Leib: Zur Geschichtlichkeit frühneuzeitlicher Körpererfahrung.” Historische Zeitschrift. Supplements, vol. 31, “‘Erfahrung’ als Kategorie der Frühneuzeitgeschichte”: 37–57.

Stolberg, Michael. 2003. Homo Patiens: Krankheits- und Körpererfahrung in der Frühen Neuzeit. Cologne: Böhlau.

Vannes, Jorunn Nerby. 2008. “La meg være fri... En idehistorisk undersøkelse av 1800-tallets spedalskprosjekt og av spedalskes og ‘de andres’ erfaringer med spedalskhet på bakgrunn av ideologier og mentaliteter.” Master’s thesis, University of Oslo.

Vollset, Magnus. 2005. “Fra lidelse til trussel: Spedalskheten in Norge på 1800-tallet.” Master’s thesis, University of Bergen.

Vollset, Magnus. 2006. “A Year at St. Jørgen – 1885 Reflected in Documents.” In Leprosy, edited by Lorentz M. Irgens, Yngve Nedrebø, Sigurd Sandmo, and Arne Skivenes, in cooperation with the Leprosy Archives of Bergen, 65–70. Førde: Selja.

Vollset, Magnus. 2013. “Globalizing Leprosy: A Transnational History of Production and Circulation of Medical Knowledge, 1850s–1930s.” PhD diss., University of Bergen.

Wolff, Eberhard. 1998. “Perspektiven der Patientengeschichtsschreibung.” In Medizingeschichte: Aufgaben, Probleme, Perspektiven, edited by Norbert Paul and Thomas Schlich, 311–334. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5463/ejlw.7.232

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2018 Marie-Theres Federhofer

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


European Journal of Life Writing - ISSN 1876-8156 - is an open access initiative supported by the VU University Library.